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Curr Biol:美学者发现心灵与感官快乐关系

摘要 : 2017年5月12日,国际著名学术杂志《Cell》子刊《Current Biology》杂志在线发表了美国纽约大学Denis Pelli和Aenne Brielmann研究员的一篇研究论文,研究从实验上揭示了感官美和心灵感觉的关系。

 2017年5月12日,国际著名学术杂志《Cell》子刊《Current Biology》杂志在线发表了美国纽约大学Denis Pelli和Aenne Brielmann研究员的一篇研究论文,研究从实验上揭示了感官美和心灵感觉的关系。

美丽的体验需要一个人的思想吗?感官上的快乐是美丽吗?这些问题一直困扰着哲学家。德国哲学家伊曼努尔·康德曾说,要评判美,就要有一个有修养的心灵,而感官快乐不是美丽。本研究中研究组将这些哲学理论设计到一系列心理实验中,发现康德的观点有对有错。

研究人员表示,焦虑确实能减损对美丽的体验。此外,当看到一幅美丽的图画时,人们也能体验到美丽。证据表明,感官快乐也是美丽。为了检验这些哲学理论,Denis Pelli和Aenne Brielmann招募了62人参加研究。他们要求参加者描述当看到一幅画、品尝蛋糕或抚摸柔软的泰迪熊时,体验到的高兴和美丽的程度。研究人员还为每个人展示了不同的照片,美丽的、不美的和中性的,让参与者对照片的美丽程度进行排序。

在又一轮实验中,研究者重复了之前的行为,但参与者处于心烦意乱的状态。结果显示,烦躁不会改变对不美事物的体验,但会减少对美的感觉。这就表明康德认为美需要思想是对的。

但虽然这位哲学家认为感官快乐不是美,但30%的参与者表示,吃蛋糕或抚摸泰迪熊绝对是美的体验。

研究人员询问了一些认为吃蛋糕是美的参与者这意味着什么。Brielmann 和Pelli报告称,“他们大多表示吮吸蛋糕对其有个人意义,例如温暖的孩童时代的记忆。甚至有人回答:‘任何东西都能是美丽的’。”

原文链接:

Beauty Requires Thought

原文摘要:

The experience of beauty is a pleasure, but common sense and philosophy suggest that feeling beauty differs from sensuous pleasures such as eating or sex. Immanuel Kant [1, 2] claimed that experiencing beauty requires thought but that sensuous pleasure can be enjoyed without thought and cannot be beautiful. These venerable hypotheses persist in models of aesthetic processing [3, 4, 5, 6, 7] but have never been tested. Here, participants continuously rated the pleasure felt from a nominally beautiful or non-beautiful stimulus and then judged whether they had experienced beauty. The stimuli, which engage various senses, included seeing images, tasting candy, and touching a teddy bear. The observer reported the feelings that the stimulus evoked. The time course of pleasure, across stimuli, is well-fit by a model with one free parameter: pleasure amplitude. Pleasure amplitude increases linearly with the feeling of beauty. To test Kant’s claim of a need for thought, we reduce cognitive capacity by adding a “two-back” task to distract the observer’s thoughts. The distraction greatly reduces the beauty and pleasure experienced from stimuli that otherwise produce strong pleasure and spares that of less-pleasant stimuli. We also find that strong pleasure is always beautiful, whether produced reliably by beautiful stimuli or just occasionally by sensuous stimuli. In sum, we confirm Kant’s claim that only the pleasure associated with feeling beauty requires thought and disprove his claim that sensuous pleasures cannot be beautiful.

来源: Current Biology 浏览次数:0

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