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Curr Biol:法国学者揭示动物声音具有识别身份能力

摘要 : 2017年8月24日,国际著名学术杂志《Cell》子刊《Current Biology》杂志在线发表了爱尔兰都柏林大学Benjamin D. Charlton研究员的一篇研究论文,论文揭示了动物叫声震动的功能,揭示了某些动物相互交流时的叫声都有快速震动的基本调频

2017年8月24日,国际著名学术杂志《Cell》子刊《Current Biology》杂志在线发表了爱尔兰都柏林大学Benjamin D. Charlton研究员的一篇研究论文,论文揭示了动物叫声震动的功能,揭示了某些动物相互交流时的叫声都有快速震动的基本调频,也就是颤音,这些颤音提高了动物识别发声者身份的能力。

“我们的结果显示,振动式的音调之所以出现,是因为它提高了动物对共振峰的感知。共振峰是动物叫声的关键部分,编码了有关发音者大小和身份的重要信息。”Benjamin Charlton解释说。

为了探索动物颤音的功能,研究人员检测了人类识别合成叫声细微差别的能力。结果显示,颤音能显著提高听众发现共振峰的能力。此外,有关92种哺乳动物的叫声的进化分析结果显示,这些调频在从6种哺乳动物中独立进化而来,包括食肉类、灵长类、偶蹄类、啮齿类、翼手目和奇蹄类。研究人员还发现,哺乳动物能对声音中的颤音进行调整。

这一发现提供了首个证据,证明了非言语声音的共振感知是通过基本调频提高的,这有助于解释为什么在不同哺乳动物叫声中会出现多次类似“咩咩”的叫声。研究人员还强调,能通过声音将体型和身份信息传达给对方,对动物而言十分重要。

Charlton团队表示,下一步将使用重新合成的具有不同调频变化的“咩咩”声,探索非人类哺乳动物识别不同发声者的能力。

原文链接:

Function and Evolution of Vibrato-like Frequency Modulation in Mammals

原文摘要:

Why do distantly related mammals like sheep, giant pandas, and fur seals produce bleats that are characterized by vibrato-like fundamental frequency (F0) modulation? To answer this question, we used psychoacoustic tests and comparative analyses to investigate whether this distinctive vocal feature has evolved to improve the perception of formants, key acoustic components of animal calls that encode important information about the caller’s size and identity [ 1 ]. Psychoacoustic tests on humans confirmed that vibrato-like F0 modulation improves the ability of listeners to detect differences in the formant patterns of synthetic bleat-like stimuli. Subsequent phylogenetically controlled comparative analyses revealed that vibrato-like F0 modulation has evolved independently in six mammalian orders in vocal signals with relatively high F0 and, therefore, low spectral density (i.e., less harmonic overtones). We also found that mammals modulate the vibrato in these calls over greater frequency extents when the number of harmonic overtones per formant is low, suggesting that this is a mechanism to improve formant perception in calls with low spectral density. Our findings constitute the first evidence that formant perception in non-speech sounds is improved by fundamental frequency modulation and provide a mechanism for the convergent evolution of bleat-like calls in mammals. They also indicate that selection pressures for animals to transmit important information encoded by formant frequencies (on size and identity, for example) are likely to have been a key driver in the evolution of mammal vocal diversity.

来源: Current Biology 浏览次数:0

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